Corresponding Author

Shohieb, Aliaa

Subject Area


Article Type

Review Article


Thyroid eye disease (TED) is a complex autoimmune disorder that may lead to fundamental morbidity. TED presents with wide range of manifestations originating radically from orbital inflammation which leading to exophthalmos, vision impairment, double vision, severe eye dryness and in advance cases vision loss may occur. On top of that, it has also series of negative impacts on the patient quality of life, psychological and emotional well-being. The full clinical picture of thyroid eye disease (TED) can be explained by the enlargement of the orbit Corticosteroids are the gold stone of treatment in TED. However, in case of steroids withdrawal recurrence is common. Moreover, in the majority of the patients, the anatomy of the orbit is not replaced to the normal state, that’s why rehabilitative surgery may be necessary to correct the deformity, diplopia and to maintain vision. Available treatment options for moderate-to-severe TED include immunotherapy. The pathophysiology of TED has been reported to identify new effective therapeutic agents. Immunotherapies are on the top of the list as they have shown considerable benefit affecting the nature course of the disease and improve the quality of life of the patients. Options include Teprotumumab (anti-IGFR) that show efficacy in improving exophthalmos, Rituximab (anti-CD20) decrease the inflammation and Tocilizumab (anti-IL-6) with the capacity to benefit both of these manifestations.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.