Corresponding Author

aldegla, heba

Subject Area


Article Type

Review Article


According to WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard, as of 11th February 2022, there have been 404,910,528 confirmed cases of COVID-19, includ-ing 5,783,776 deaths. Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent. It is caused by coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the disease may cause acute respiratory dis-tress syndrome (ARDS), that increases the susceptibility of co-infections with fungi. Acute invasive fungal sinusitis (AIFS) is a severe infection mostly affecting immune-compromised patients and carries high risk of mortality. COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU have risk factors for AIFS, mainly chronic diseases of the respiratory tract, treatment with corticosteroid, intubation/mechanical ventilation, and cytokine storm. Aspergillus and Mucorales are the causative fungi of most AIFS cases, but other atyp-ical fungi can be involved especially among patients receiving azole prophylaxis. Most AIFS cases have symptoms like fever, nasal congestion, and facial swelling. Diagnosis of AIFS is made by endoscopy and radiology associated with clinical examination. The gold standard test for diagnosis of AIFS is histopathology, though pan-fungal PCR plays an important role. Therapy of AIFS includes surgery, antifungal agents, and correction of immunosuppression status.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.